“Arabee”: Choree Kee Misr Bhaasha

[anuvaad lambit hai]
[Devanaagaree mein upalabdh hai: मिस्री-ज्ञान-केंद्र.भारत]

“Arabee”: Choree Kee Misr Bhaasha

[“Arabic”: The Stolen Egyptian Language]

7 veen shataabdee seeee mein islaamee taakaton kee vrddhi aur apratyaashit vyaapak saphalata ne kuraan likhane kee aavashyakata ko prerit kiya. moslem arabon ne apanee sena kee achaanak vrddhi aur saphalata ke baad, kuraan ko mudrit karane ke lie haathaapaee kee. unhonne maujooda praacheen misr kee sarasaree shailee ka upayog kiya jo aamataur par uttaree arab mein upayog kiya jaata tha, aur isamen se ek svatantr bhaasha banaane kee koshish kee gaee thee.

(Kuraanik) arabee bhaasha ne e, bee, tee, tee, aadi kee ebeejeedee varnamaala ke kram ko phir se vyavasthit karake apane praacheen misr ke srot se alag dikhane kee koshish kee, jisase unhen aur adhik samasyaen hueen. any semetik bhaashaon, jaise hibroo, ne ebeejeedee varnamaala ke samaan kram ko banae rakha.

Yah ek nae “dharm” ko “naee” bhaasha ke saath sammaanit karake pahachaan ka ek roop dene ka ek dayaneey prayaas tha. patr-roopon mein kuchh badalaavon aur bahut saare binduon ko jodane ke saath, yah har aur sabhee sambandh mein praacheen misr kee bhaasha banee huee hai. vartamaan patr-roopon kee tulana mein praacheen misr mein patr-roopon ka adhik vishleshan is pustak ke adhyaay 12 aur 23 mein paaya ja sakata hai. yah mudee huee arabee lipi bachee rahee aur keval isalie bachee rahee kyonki yah kuraan aur masjidon ke lie praarthana kee ekamaatr anumati vaalee bhaasha hai. “arabee” ka bhaagy islaam ke bhaagy se juda hai.

Is tarah ke prayaason ke baavajood, british misr ke vaigyaanik elan gaardinar ne apanee pustak misree graamar mein, pej 3, kaha:

“Old misree kee pooree mukhar pranaalee vaastav mein hibroo ya aadhunik arabee ke samaan ek manch par pahunch gaee saabit ho sakatee hai”

Bhaasha ke any stambhon jaise ki vyaakaran, vaaky-vinyaas ityaadi ke lie, yah bilkul praacheen misr kee bhaasha kee tarah hai.

British misree vaigyaanik elan gaardinar ne apanee pustak misree graamar mein, prshth 2, kaha:

“Misr kee bhaasha na keval semitik tangs (hibroo, arabee, araamee, bebeeloniyan, aadi) se sambandhit hai, balki poorvee aphreekee bhaashaon (galla, somaalee, aadi) aur uttaree aphreeka ke barbar muhaavaron se bhee sambandhit hai.” baad ke samoohon ke saath sambandh, ek saath haimitik parivaar ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, ek bahut hee kaantedaar vishay hai, lekin ardh-jeebh ke sambandh ko kaaphee sateek roop se paribhaashit kiya ja sakata hai. saamaany sanrachana mein samaanata bahut hee shaanadaar hai; misr mein semetik kee pramukh khaasiyat saajha kee gaee hai. isake shabd-tanon mein vyanjan ke sanyojan hote hain, niyam teen mein ek sankhya ke roop mein, jo saiddhaantik roop se kam se kam aparivartaneey hain. vyaakaranik vibhakti aur arth kee maamoolee bhinnata mukhy roop se aantarik svaron mein parivartan ke bajane se vanchit hotee hain, haalaanki pratyay ant ka bhee upayog kiya jaata hai. ek hee uddeshy.

“Arabee bhaasha” vaastav mein bahut puraanee praacheen misr kee bhaasha kee sabhee bhaashaee visheshataon ka anupaalan karatee hai jo is pustak ke adhyaay 15 mein vistrt thee. isamen shaamil hain (lekin yah seemit nahin hai) praacheen misr ke prototaip ke paraspar jude leksikon, vyaakaran aur vaaky rachana jaise kriya, kriya kee jad, kriya ke tane, kriya kee kakshaon aur sanrachanaon ke mahatv, kriya ke lie sanyugman yojana aur misr ke prototaip kee vyutpatti / leksikon. aur teen-akshar root (jo ek nishchit saamaany avadhaarana ko darshaata hai) se shabd nirmaan / vyutpann, madhyavartee svaron aur upasargon, infixais aur pratyay, aadi ke upayog ke maadhyam se kaee paitarn mein; silebals ke prakaar aur sanrachanaon ke saath-saath vaakyavinyaas / shabd aadesh aur vaaky prakaar.

Aur praacheen misr ke lekhan kee tarah, tathaakathit “arabee” kaee sulekh vividhataon ke saath do praathamik lipiyon ko niyojit karata hai jo vibhinn prayojanon ke lie bade paimaane par upayog kie jaate hain:

1. Padhane mein aasaan- “basaree” kaha jaata hai, yah supaathy aur spasht hai – aur isalie, “basaree” ka arth hai “drshti / drshti”, gol roopon ke saath. is shailee ka kisee vishesh shahar / bhaugolik sthaan se koee lena-dena nahin hai.

2. Likhane mein aasaan- jise “kuphi” kaha jaata hai, jisaka arth hai “haath”, jisaka kisee vishesh shahar / bhaugolik sthaan se koee lena-dena nahin hai. yah koneey roopon ke saath likha gaya hai.

Islaam mein dhaarmik maamalon ko likhane ke lie anaitik ka upayog karane ke lie koee dhaarmik bhed nahin hai. haalaanki, kuchh shuruaatee lekhan anaitik shailee mein kie gae the.

Aur yah ek aashchary ke roop mein nahin aana chaahie ki sabhee shikshaavid is baat se sahamat hain ki “naee arabee” mein do shailiyon [basaree aur kuphee] ke sabase puraane namoone 700 eesa poorv ke do misr ke paasaport aur ek nijee patr, jo misr mein bhee likhe gae hain. varsh 670 ee. mein dinaankit.

Yah kahana ki misravaasee “arabee” bolate aur likhate hain, pooree tarah se galat aur ataarkik hai. yah doosara tareeka hai- “arabon” ne bahut pahale “apanaaya” hai aur aigyptian bolana aur likhana jaaree rakhate hain.

[mustapha gadaala dvaara praacheen misr ke saarvabhaumik lekhan mod ka ek ansh]

The Ancient Egyptian Universal Writing Modes

par pustak saamagree dekhen https://egypt-tehuti.org/product/ancient-egyptian-universal-writing-modes/

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Pustak kray aautalet:

u – odiyobuk kobo.chom, aadi par upalabdh hai.
bee – peedeeeph praaroop smashwords.chom par upalabdh hai
see – epab praaroop https://books.applai.chom/…/moustaf-gadall/id578894528 aur smashwords.chom par kobo.chom, applai par upalabdh hai.
dee – mobee praaroop amazon.chom aur smashwords.chom par upalabdh hai