Misri Samaaj

Misri Samaaj

 

Aparivartaneeya Misravaasiah

Misravaasi Zabardast Roodheevaadi Hote Hain. Misr Ke Samooche Itihaas Ke Dauraan, Paramparaaon Ke Prati Nistha Rakhane Par Zor Diya Jaata Raha Aur Misravaasi Is Siddhaant Se Kabhi Vichalit Nahi Hue. Duniya Ke Sabase Puraane Sanrakshit Lekh (5,000 Varsh Poorv) Me Misri Vazeer Ptah Hotep Ne Kaha Tha:

Apne Pita (Poorvajon) Ki Shikshaaon Ya Nirdeshon Me Koyi Bhi Sudhaar Ya Parivartan Na Karen—Ek Shabd Bhi Nahi. Aur Is Siddhaant Ko Bhaavi Peedhiyon Ke Liye Shiksha Ka Adhaar Banaayen.

Misri Is Siddhaant Se Kabhi Bhi Vichalit Nahi Hue. Praarambhik Itihaasakaaron Ne Is Tathya Ko Satyaapit Kiya Hai, Jaise Ki Herodotus Ne The Histories, Book 2, [79] Me Kaha Hai:

Misravaasi Apni Sthaaneeya Reeti-Rivaajon Ko Nibhaate Hain, Aur Kabhi Bhi Koyi Baahari Taur-Tareeka Nahi Apnaate.

Herodotus, The Histories, Book 2, [91]:

Misr Ke Log Yunani Reeti-Rivaajon Ko Apnaana Nahi Chaahate, Ya Ise Samaanya Taur Par Kahen To Ve Kisi Bhi Anya Desh Ke Reeti-Rivaajon Ko Apnaana Nahi Chaahate.

Misravasiyon Me Is Tarah Ke Roodhivaad Ka Saar Unake Poorvajon Dvaara Sthaapit Parampara Paalan Ke Niyam Me Nihit Hai. Vo Jo Kuchh Bhi Karate, Unake Har Kaary, Har Gatividhi, Har Nirnaaya Ka Paalan Karane Aur Use Nyaayasangat Thaharaane Ke Liye Unhen Apne Poorvajon Ki Paramparaaon Ki Kasauti Par Khara Utarana Zaroori Tha. Praacheen Aur Baladi Misriyon Ka Samoocha Samaajashaastraa Aur Unaka Astitv, Shuru Se Lekar Ant, Keval Puraani Paramparaaon Ki Ek Lambi Zanjeer Hai—Jisaki Har Ek Kaadi Aur Har Ek Keel, Reeti-Rivaaj Aur Niyam Ke Roop Me Unake Adhyaatmik Pita Se Unake Nashvar Astitva Tak Pahunchati Thi. Plato Aur Anya Lekhakon Ne Bhi Misriyon Dvaara Apne Prathaaon Ke Sampoorna Anupaalan Ki Pushti Ki Hai.

Tab Se Lekar Aajtak Is Unaka Yah Ravaiya Zara Bhi Nahi Badala, Aur Tab Se Misr Jaane Vaale Har Yaatri Ne Roodhiyon Se Unake Is Lagaav Ki Pushti Ki Hai. Ab Yahaan Aise Sabhi Jhoothe Daavon Ka Saavadhaanipoorvak Adhyayan Kiya Jaayega Jo Kahate Hain, Ki Praacheen Misriyon Ne Apne Tareekon, Bhashaon, Dharm, Paramparaaon Aadi Ko Badal Liya, Aur Dikhaaya Jaayega Ki Aise Daave Keval Mrigatrisna Ke Sivaaya Kuchh Bhi Nahi. Jabaki Sachchaayi Yah Hai Ki Praacheen Paramparaayen Kabhi Mareen Nahi, Balki Ve Behad Khaamoshi Ke Saath Un Bahusankhyakon Ke Andar Zinda Raheen Jinhen Baladi Kaha Jaata Hai (Ya Ve Khud Ko Kahate Hain) Jisaka Arth Hota Hai, Moolnivaasi. Ye Khaamosh Bahusankhyak Misr Ke Mukhar Alpasankhyakon (Uchch Sarakaari Adhikaariyon, Vidvaanon, Patrakaaron, Aur Swaghosit Buddhijeeviyon Ko Afarangi (Firangi?) Kahate Hain, Jisaka Matalab Hota Hai, Videshi. Afarangi Ve Misri Log Hain, Jinhonne Misr Ko Jeetane Vaale Videshi Vijetaaon Ko Khush Karane Aur Uncha Ohada Paane Ke Liye Misr Ki Viraasat Se Samajhauta Kar Liya. Arab Vijetaaon Jaisi Baahari Taakaton Ke Pitthu Ban Kar Afarangiyon Ne, Yahaan Ke Mool Nivaasi Baladiyon Par Shaashan Aur Adhipatya Jama Liya. Afarangi Bilkul Apne Videshi Akaaon Ki Tarah Hi Kroor, Ghamandi Aur Nikamme Hote Hain. Videshi Shaktiyon Ke Misr Se Jaane Ke Baad, Misri Afarangiyon Ne Dhaarmik Shaasakon Ke Roop Me Apni Bhoomika Ko Age Badhaaya. Praacheen Misri Poorvajon Ki Mashaal Ko Thaame—Badalaav Se Door Bhaagane Vaale Baladi—Apni Naagarikata Se Vnchit Kar Diye Gaye—Jisake Baare Me Age Charcha Ki Gayi Hai.

 

 ‘‘Naslavaadi Dharm’’

Yah Ek Aam Maanyata Hai Ki Itihaas Naveenatam Vijetaaon Dvaara Likha (Ya Sahee-Sahi Kahen To Gadha Ya Apne Rang Me Ranga) Jaata Hai. Falaswaroop, Baar-Baar Is Baat Ko Likha Aur Doharaaya Gaya Ki Praacheen Misriyon Ne Ptolemya Aur Romanon Ke Adhipatya Tatha Shaashan Ko Sweekaar Kar Liya Aur Unhonne Swechchha Apne Dhaarmik Maanyataaon Ko Tyaag Kar Eisayi Dharm Apna Liya, Fir Kuchh Hi Samaya Baad, Unhonne Islam Dharm Ko Eisayiyat Ke Vikalp Ke Roop Me Apna Liya. Isaka Nateeja Ye Hua Ki Tarah-Tarah Ke Virodhi Paksh Ubhar Ae (Europavaadi, Africavaadi, Islamavaadi, Eisayi, … Aadi), Aur Praacheen Misr Ka Upayog Apne-Apne Ejendae Ko Phailaane Me Karane Lage, Aur Ve Zor Dekar Kahane Lage Ki Praacheen Dharm, Bhasha Aur Paramparaayen Khatm Ho Chuki Hain. Is Tarah Ke Niraadhaar Jhooth Ko Alpasankhyak Afarangi Misriyon Ne Hava Di—Jo 640 A.D. Se Hi Arabon Ka Samarthan Karate Ae Hain—Tatha Apne Poorvajon Ki Viraasat Ko Neecha Dikhaane Me Apni Poori Taakat Jhonkate Rahe Hain.

Baladi Misriyon Ki Dabbu Prakriti Ke Kaarana, Bahut Se Logon Ne Misriyon Ki ‘‘Pahachaan’’ Ko Lekar Apne-Apne ‘‘Siddhaant’’ Gadh Liye, Jinaka Koyi Vaigyaanik Ya Aitihaasik Adhaar Nahi Hai. Unake In Khokhale Daavon Ka Adhaar Misri Logon Ki Varg Aur Nasl Se Judi Pahachaan Hai, Jo Unake Kalpit Dharmon Par Adhaarit Hai. Kuchh Log Daava Karate Hain Ki Misr Ki Islami Abaadi (Lagabhag 90%) Arab Praayadveep Se Akar Base Arabi Logon Ki Hai. Daava Kiya Jaata Hai Ki Misr Ki Eisayi Abaadi (Lagabhag 10%) Asali Misri Hain, Jinhen Praacheen Misriyon Ke Vanshaj, Copt Kaha Jaata Hai. Jabaki Doosaron Ka Daava Hai Ki Misr Ki Islami Abaadi 640 Eiswi Me Misr Par Fatah Haasil Karane Vaale Arabon Tatha Praacheen Misravasiyon Ke Mishrit Rakt Hain. Praacheen Misri ‘‘Rakt’’ Ka Ab Koyi Astitva Nahi Hai. Jabaki Haqeekat Men, Samast Yugon Ki Saikadon Praacheen Misri Mummyion—Ke Saath Kiye Gaye Daeeenaye Pareekshana—Tatha Saath Hi Saath Praacheen Misri Mandiron Aur Maqabaron Me Anekon Chitrit Akritiyaan—Dikhaati Hain Ki Aaj Ke Misri ‘‘Musalamaan’’ Apne Praacheen Misri Poorvajon Ki Nasl Ke Hi Hain.

Misr Ka Eisayi Samaaj ‘‘Muslim’’ Samaaj Se Spasht Roop Se Alag Hai. Darasal, Misri Eisayi Misr Ke Mool Nivaasi Nahi Hain, Balki Ve Yahoodiya Aur Syria Se Misr Me Akar Base Videshi Alpasankhyak Hain, Jo Sena Ke Sainikon Ya Vibhinn Prakaar Ke Karon Ko Ekatr Karane Vaalon Ke Roop Me Romanon Ki Naukari Karane Ke Liye Yahaan Ae. Yah Mahaz Sanyog Nahi Hai Ki Misr Ki Vartamaan Eisayi Abaadi Unheen Sthaanon Ke Asapaas Rahati Hai, Jahaan Kabhi Romanon Ne Apne Sainya Aur Prashaasanik (Kar Sangrah) Kendra Banaaye The. Aaj 2,000 Saal Baad, Bhi In Syriaayi Logon Ko Unake Shaklosoorat Tatha Vyavahaar Ki Vishistata Ke Kaaran Misr Ke Adhikaansh Moolnivaasiyon Ke Saath Asaani Se Unhen Alag Kiya Ja Sakata Hai. Videshi Shodhakarta, Jaise British Shodhakarta, E.W. Lane, Ne Apni Kitaab, The Manners And Customs Of The Modern Egyptians (1836) Me Aise Antaron Ki Pushti Ki Hai.

Misr Me Rahane Vaale Videshiyon (Syriaayi Aur Anya) Ke Vipareet, Misr Ke Moolnivaasi Kabhi Eisayi Dharm Me Parivartit Nahi Hue. Yah Alexandria Ane Vaale Pravaasi Syriaayi The Jinake Kaaran Misr Me Shuruaati Eisayi Samaaj Bana. 312 A.D. Men, Eisayiyat Ko Roman Saamraajya Ka Adhikaarik Aur Ekamaatr Dharm Ghosit Kiya Gaya. Thode Samaya Baad, Roman Saamraajya Ka Vikhandaan Ho Gaya. Misr 323 A.D. Me Poorvi (Ya Byzantine) Saamraajya Ka Hissa Ban Gaya. Eisayi Dharm Ko Saamraajya Ka Adhikaarik Dharm Banaane Ki Constantine Ki Ghosana Se Misr Par Do Tatkaalik Prabhaav Pada. Pahala Yah, Ki Church Ko Apne Prashaasanik Dhaanche Ki Vyavastha Ko Vistaar Dene Tatha Paryaapt Dhan Ikattha Karane Ki Ijaajat Mil Gayi, Aur Doosara Yah Ki Isase Eisayi Kattarapnthiyon Ko Misr Ke Moolnivaasiyon Ke Dhaarmik Adhikaaron, Sampattiyon Tatha Mandiron Ko Nast Karane Ki Chhoot Mil Gayi. Udaaharan Ke Liye, Jab Theophilus Ko 391 A.D. Me Alexandria Ka Pradhaan Banaaya Gaya Tab Misr Ki Dharati Par Vinaash Ki Andhi Chal Paadi. Maqabare Tabaah Kar Diye Gaye, Praacheen Smaarakon Ki Deevaaron Ko Vikrit Kar Diya Gaya, Aur Moortiyon Ko Dhaha Diya Gaya. Alexandria Ka Prasiddh Pustakaalaya Nast Kar Diya Gaya, Jisame Sahastron Granth Maujood The. Praarambhik Kattarapnthi Eisayiyon Ne Praacheen Misri Mandiron Ko Hadap Liya. Chauthi Aur Paanchaveen Shataabdi Men, Luxor (Thebes) Ke Pashchimi Tat Par Kayi Praacheen Mandiron Ko Mathon Me Parivartit Kar Diya Gaya.

Eisayiyon Ki Lokapriyata Ke Atyadhik Atirnjit Daavon Ko Saabit Karane Ke Liye Alexandria Ke Baahar Koyi Bhi Puraataatvik Saakshya Maujood Nahi Hai. Praacheen Misravaasiyon Ko Eisayi Kattarapnthiyon Se Kisi Bhi Naye ‘‘Gyaan’’ Ki Zaroorat Nahi Thi, Kyonki Jin Cheezon Ko Ve Ab Eisayi Dharm Ke Naam Se Bata Rahe The, Vah New Testament Ke Kaafi Pahle Se Hi Praacheen Misr Me Maujood Tha. British Misri Puraatatvashaastrai, Sir E. A. Wallis, Ne Apni Pustak, The Gods Of The Egyptians (1969) Me Likha Hai:

Jis Naye Dharm (Eisayiyat) Ka Sent Maark Aur Usake Nikat Anuyaayiyon Dvaara Vahaan Prachaar-Prasaar Kiya Gaya, Vah Moolaroop Se Osiris, Isis Aur Horus Ki Pooja Se Kaafi Had Tak Milata-Julata Tha.

Misri Sanskaran Aur New Testament Ke Sanskaran Ke Beech Mukhya Antar Yah Hai Ki Bible Ki Kahaaniyon Ko Aitihaasik Maana Jaata Hai, Jabaki Osiris/Isis/Horus Ki Misri Kahaani Ko Roopak Katha. British Vidvaan A. N. Wilson Ne Apni Pustak, Jesus Me Is Baat Ko Rekhaankit Karate Hue Kaha Hai:

Itihaas Ke Eisa Aur Astha Ke Maseeh Do Alag-Alag Praani  Hain, Jinaki Kahaaniyaan Behad Alag-Alag Hain.

Shuruaati Eisayiyon Ne Tathya Aur Mithak Ko Apas Me Ghol Diya. Apne Sanaki Jahaalat Men, Unhonne Praacheen Misri Adhyaatmik Roopak Ko Tathaakathit Itihaas Bana Daala. ‘‘Maseeh Tumhaare Andar Hai’’ Yah Praacheen Misr Ka Satya Sandesh Tha, Jise Adhyaatmik Roopak Ko Itihaas Banaane Vaalon Ne Kaheen Dafan  Kar Diya. (Adhik Jaanakaari Ke Liye, Moustafa Gadalla Dvaara Likhit Pustak The Ancient Egyptian Roots Of Christianitya Dekhen.)

Chauthi Shataabdi Aur Usake Baad Church Me Hone Vaale Raajnaytik Aur Saiddhaantik Sangharson Ke Itihaas Ko Adhikatar Parameshvar Tatha Maseeh Ki Prakriti Evam Un Dono Ke Beech Ke Sambandh Ke Vivaad Ke Taur Par Likha Gaya Hai. Ye Samooh Jacobite Ya Coptic, Tatha Melkite Ya Royalist Ke Naam Se Mashahoor Hue. Jacobite Log Monophysites Mat Ko Maanane Vaale The, Jisame Mukhya Roop Se (Sabhi Nahi) Misr Me Janme Parantu Videshi Mool Ke Log (Jinhen Galati Se Misr Ke Moolnivaasi Samajh Liya Gaya) Shaamil The, Jabaki Melkite Chalcedon Ke Roodhivaadi (Orthodox) Anuyaayi The, Jiname Adhikaansh Yunani Ya Europeeya Mool Ke Log Shaamil The.

Monophysites, Shuru Se Hi, Maseeh Ke Siddhaant Ko Maanane Vaale Log The, Jo Unaki Maanav Prakriti Ko Asweekaar Karate Aur Unake Ishwaratva Par Zor Dete The. Jab Rome Aur Constantinople Ke Roodhivaadi (Orthodox) Dharmashaastraiyon Ne 451 Me Chalcedon Ki Parisad Me Is Baat Par Sahamati Vyakt Ki, Ki Maseeh Ki Pooja ‘‘Do Prakritiyon Ki Abhinn Ekataa’’ Ke Roop Me Ki Jaaye, Tab Vipakshi Monophysites Ne Tark Diya Ki Halanki Maseeh ‘‘Do Prakritiyon Me Se Ho Sakate Hain’’ Parantu Vah Do Prakritiyon Me Nahi Ho Sakate. Parinaamaswaroop 451 Men, Pope Dioscorus Ke Shaashankaal Ke Dauraan, Misr Me Monophysites Church Ne Melkite Orthodox Church Se Alag Hokar Apna Alag Pradhaan Chun Liya. 451 Me Chalcedon Ki Parisad Ke Baad Se, Dono Charchon Ka Apna Alag-Alag Pope Aur Prashaasan Ho Gaya.

Hamane ‘‘Copts’’ Ke Kattarata Ke Baare Me Bahut Suna Hai. Tathaapi Isake Zimmedaar Bhi Vaheen Hain, Kyonki Unhonne Anya Dhaarmik Maanyataaon Ko Sweekaar Nahi Kiya, Jisame Unake Melkite Eisayi Saathi Bhi Shaamil Hain. Doosaron Ke Dhaarmik Adhikaaron Ke Prati Unaki Asweekriti Hinsak Aur Vinaashakaari Thi. Halanki Unhen Apne Swyam Ke Pope Chunane Ki Anumati Di Gayi Thi, Fir Bhi Ve Melkiteon Aur Anya Logon Ko Apne-Apne Tareeke Se Pooja Karane Ka Adhikaar Na Dene Par Ade Rahe. Is Tathaakathit Atyaachaar Ke Liye Cyrus Ko Dosi Thaharaaya Gaya, Jise 631 A.D. Me Alexandria Ka Shaahi Pope Bana Kar Bheja Gaya Tha. Pope Ke Dohare Uttaraadhikaar Ko Kaayam Rakha Gaya Tha. Cyrus Ne Pahle Dono Guton (Melkites Aur Monophysites) Ke Beech Samajhauta Karaane Ki Koshish Ki. Monophysites Ne Samajhaute Ko Khaarij Kar Diya—Kyonki Ve Usaki Satta Ko Maanyata Hi Nahi Dete The.

Cyrus Ko Apne Samraat Ki Or Se Adesh Ko Vaapas Laagu Karana Pada, Kyonki Monophysiteson Ne Apne Kattarapnthi Vyaakhyaaon Se Asahamat Logon Ko Atankit Aur Barbaad Kar Diya Tha. To Kya Cyrus Ne Monophysiteson Par Atyaachaar Kiya, Ya Fir Unhonne Use Aur Usaki Satta Ko Khaarij Kar Ke Usaki Pratikriya Ko Amantraana Diya Thaa? Poori Tasweer Ye Hai Ki, Ve Kayi Saadiyon Tak Misri Dharati Aur Vahaan Ke Logon (Apne Mejabaan) Par Atyaachaar Karate Rahe, Jisake Javaab Me Cyrus Ne Unaki Jooti Unheen Ke Sar Par De Maari.

Jab 639 A.D. Me Muslim Arab, Kuchh Hazaar Logon Ke Saath Misr Ko Fatah Karane Ae, Tab Gair-Misri Eisayi Monophysiteson Ke Sakriya Samarthan Aur Sahaayata Se Unaka Kaarya Apekshaakrit Saral Ho Gaya. Arab Yoddhaaon Tatha Byzantines Ke Beech Yuddh Aur Raajnaytik Tikadamon Ke Daur Ke Baad, Do Saal Ke Andar Hi Andar, 6 Navnbar, 641 Ko Cyrus Ne Arab Muslimon Ke Saath Ek Sandhi Par Hastaakshar Kiye, Jisame Roman Sainikon Ki Poori Tarah Se Vaapasi, Sabhi Samarth Puruson Par Shulk, Tatha Sabhi Zameendaaron Ke Liye Kar Ki Sharten Sweekaar Ki Gayin. Sandhi Ke Pakshon Me Ek Taraf Muslim Arab The Aur Doosari Taraf Gair-Misri Eisayi, Jo Us Desh—(Misr)— Ko Saunp Rahe The, Jo Unaka Tha Hi Nahi.

Eisayiyon Ke Sakriya Sahayog Ke Kaarana, Arab Muslim Vijetaaon Ne Monophysites Church Ka Samarthan Kiya, Jo Misr Ke Mool Nivaasiyon Par Lagaaye Gaye Vyakti Kar Ko Ekatr Karane Me Unaka Sahayog Karate The. Doosare Shabdon Men, Arabon Ne Kar Sangrah Ke Liye Usi Prashaasan Ko Jaari Rakha Jo Roman/Byzantine Shaashan Kaal Me Hua Karate The. Badale Men, Eisayiyon Ko Apne Dharm Ka Paalan Jaari Rakhane Ke Adhikaar Ki Gaaranti Di Gayi Thi. Misr Me Byzantine Shaashan Ki Antim Haar 642 A.D. Me Tab Huyi Jab Unake Sainikon Ne Alexandria Ko Khaali Kar Diya. Us Din Se Misr, Pratyaksh Roop Se Videshiyon Ya Apratyaksh Roop Se Afarangi Misriyon Ke Shaashan Ke Vaala Ek Islamic/Arab Upanivesh Ban Gaya.

Islami Shaashan Ke Tahat, Ek Vyakti Ko Adhikaarik Taur Par Teen ‘‘Anumodit’’ Dharmon (Islam Dharm, Eisayi Dharm, Aur Yahoodi Dharm) Me Se Kisi Ek Ke Prati Apni Nistha Ghosit Karani Padati Hai, Kyonki Islami Kaanoon Ke Tahat Eisayiyon Aur Yahoodiyon Ke Liye Ek Alag ‘‘Kar’’ (Jise Jaziya Kaha Jaata Hai) Laagu Hota Hai. Arab Vijetaaon (Aur Unake Eisayi Kar Sangraahakon) Ke Dabaav Aur Daar Se Misr Ki Praja Ko, Ko Teen ‘‘Anumodit’’ Dharmon Me Se Ek Ke Prati Nistha Ghosit Karani Paadi. Is Tarah Ki Ghosana Keval Ek Majaboori Thi, Na Ki Sachcha Dharm Parivartan. Ek Baar Yadi Kisi Vyakti Ne ‘‘Islam’’ Apnaane Ghosana Kar Di, To Fir Vah Kabhi Bhi Badal Nahi Sakata, Kyonki Ise Ishwar Ka Apamaan Maana Jaayega, Jisake Kaaran Vah Kabhi Kisi Muslim Ke Haathon Maara Bhi Ja Sakata Hai. Isake Atirikt, Musalamaanon Ki Sabhi Sntaanon Ko—Islamic Kaanoon Ke Tahat—Swaabhaavik Roop Se Musalamaanon Maan Liya Jaata Hai—Isaliye Vah Kabhi Islam Chhod Nahi Paata.

Copt, Shabd Eisayiyat Se Pahle Ka Hai, Jise Yunani Log Misriyon Ke Liye Istemaal Karate The. 640 A.D. Ke Baad, Arabon Ne Saamaanyaatah Is Shabd Ka Istemaal Gair-Muslim Misri Logon Ke Liye Kiya Jabaki Misr Ke Islamic Samaaj Ko Arab Kaha Jaane Laga. Doosare Shabdon Men, 640 A.D. Ke Vijetaaon Ne Misriyon Ke Islam Apnaane Ke Baad Unaki Nasl Ko Bhi Arab Me Parivartit Kar Diya. Falaswaroop, Saataveen Shataabdi Tak Ek Alag Maayane Vaale Copt Shabd Ka Arth Badal Kar—Misri Ke Bajaaya Eisayi Ho Gaya.

Misravaasiyon Ko Ek Baar Fir Se Bina Kisi Khaas Pratirodh Ke Adheenata Sweekaar Karani Paadi. Baladi Misriyon Ne Islam Ke Baareek Avarana Ke Andar Apni Praacheen Paramparaaon Ko Kaayam Rakhana Seekh Liya. Is Aam Misri Muhaavare Me Unake Astitva Ko Bachaane Ki Jaddojahad Bakhaoobi Dikhati Hai, ‘‘Vah Ande Aur Patthar Se Khelata Hai—Taaki Patthar Se Usaka Naajuk Anda Toote Nahi. (Misr Ke ‘‘Islamikaran’’ Ke Baare Me Aur Adhik Jaanane Ke Liye Gadalla Dvaara Likhi Anya Pustaken, Jaise Misri Rahasyavaad: Path Ke Saadhak, Misr Ka Brahmaanada Vigyaan: Sajeev Brahmaanda Aur The Enduring Ancient Egyptian Musical System Aadi Dekhen.)


For more information about the Ancient (and present-day) Egyptian population, their nature, housing, etc., refer to:

  • Praacheen Misri Sanskriti Ka Rahasyodghaatan -Vistaarit Dviteeya Sanskaran dvaara likhit Moustafa Gadalla
  • Misri Rahasyavad: Path Ke Saadhak dvaara likhit Moustafa Gadalla

par pustak saamagree dekhen https://egypt-tehuti.org/product/praacheen-misri-sanskriti-ka-rahasyodghaatan/

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