Praacheen Misr Ke Supeeriyar Phaarming Takaneek

Praacheen Misr Ke Supeeriyar Phaarming Takaneek

 

Misr Duniya Ke Sabase Shushk Kshetraon Me Se Ek Tha Aur Aaj Bhi Hai. Herodotus Ke Anusaar Misr Ki Neel Nadi Ka 90% Jal 100 Divaseeya Vaarsik Baadh Ke Mausam Me Ata Tha, Jaisa Ki Usane Apni The Histories (2, 92) Me Likha Hai:

… Garmiyon Ke Charam Kaal Me Paani Badhana Shuru Ho Jaata Hai, Aur Yah Prakriya Sau Dinon Jaari Rahati Hai, Fir Us Avadhi Ke Ant Me Vah Vaapas Ghat Jaata Hai, Aur Is Tarah Agale Varsh Fir Se Charam Garmiyon Ke Lautane Tak Vah Poori Sardiyon Ke Dauraan Nichale Star Par Rahata Hai.

 Neel Nadi Ke Baadh Ka Kaaran Ethiopia Me Hone Vaali Barasaat Hai, Jo Ethiopia Ke Pahaadi Maidaanon Ki Mitti Ko Neeli Neel (Blue Nile) Wa Anya Sahaayak Nadiyon Ke Maadhyam Se Misr Ki Or Baha Laati Hai. Madhya Africa Se Ane Vaali Shwet Neel (White Nile) Ke Maadhyam Se Misr Me Bahut Jyaada Maatra Me Paani Nahi Ata Hai.

Praacheen Misravaasiyon Ne Apne Seemit Jal Sansaadhanon Ka Kushalataapoorvak Prabandhan Kiya, Aur Shushk-Mausam Ke Duniya Ke Sabase Achchhe Krisak Ban Gaye. Praacheen Misr Apne Shushk Mausam Me Sinchaayi Aur Kheti Ki Takaneek Ke Liye Duniya Bhar Me Mashahoor Tha. Diodorus Ne Misri Kheti Ke Kushal Pranaali Ke Baare Me Kaha Tha,

… Hosh Sambhaalane Se Hi Kheti-Kisaani Ke Beech Palane-Badhane Ke Kaarana, Ve Anya Deshon Ke Kisaanon Ke Muqaable Kaafi Zayaada Maahir Ho Gaye, Isake Saath Hi Unhonne Bhoomi Ki Kshamataaon, Sinchaayi Ki Sthiti, Buvaayi Aur Kataayi Ke Sahi Mausam, Tatha Fasal Ke Saath Jude Anya Sabhi Behad Upayogi Rahasyon Ko Apne Poorvajon Se Seekha, Aur Apne Swyam Ke Anubhav Ke Adhaar Par Usame Sudhaar Kiya.

Samooche Neel Nadi Ghaati Me Jal Ka Prabandhan Karane Ke Liye, Dher Saari Sansthaayen Kaayam Ki Gayin Theen, Jo Baadh Ke Dauraan Paani Ke Pravaah Ka Nirikshan, Maapn, Abhilekhan Aadi Ka Kaarya Karati Theen. Falaswaroop, Ati Praacheen Kaal Se Hi Ek Behad Sangathit Aur Upayogi Saamudaayik Sinchaayi Pranaali Vikasit Ho Gayi.

Jal Sanrakshan Aur Disha Parivartan Ke Sangathit Upaayon Se Praacheen Misr Me Upalabdh Seemit Jal Sansaadhan Ka Behad Kushalataapoorvak Prabandhan Kiya Jaata Tha. Strabo Ke Mutaabik, Misri Saamudaayik Sinchaayi Vyavastha Behad Saraahaneeya Thi,

… Jahaan Prakriti Poora Nahi Kar Paati Vahaan Apoorti Ke Liye Naharon Aur Tatabandhon Ki Yukti Apnaayi Jaati, Aur Zameen Ki Sinchaayi Ki Maatra Me Naamamaatr Ka Antar Hota Tha, Chaahe Baadh Bharapoor Ae Ya Kam.

Praacheen Misravaasiyon Ne Sailaab Ke Mausam Me Neel Ke Jalastar Ke Badhaav Ka Sookshmata Se Nirikshan Kiya. Neel Ke Kramik Vriddhi Aur Giraavat Ko Maapne Ke Liye, Misr Ke Vibhinn Bhaagon Me Nilometer Naamak Upakaranaon Ka Nirmaana Kiya Gaya Tha, Jinaka Istemaal Jal Ke Satah Me Utaar-Chadhaav Darj Karane Wa Soochana Dene Me Kiya Jaata Tha. Samooche Misr Ke Sabhi Nilometeron Ki Unchaayi Ekal Saamoohik Ankade Se Jude Hote The. Pravaah Ki Maatra Aur Avadhi Ko Prasikshit Adhikaariyon Dvaara Viniyamit Kiya Jaata Tha, Jo Jaladvaar Ki Sahaayata Se Paani Ke Pravaah Ko Nishchit Unchaayi Aur Avadhi Ke Liye Niyantrait Karate The. Diodorus Ne Apne Book 1 (1 9. 5-6), Me Isaki Pushti Karate Hue Kaha Hai:

… Baadh Ke Samaya Me Isase Zameen Par Nukasaanadeh Kunda Nahi Banata Tha, Balki Baadh Ke Paani Ko Inake (Misravaasiyon) Banaaye Dvaaron Ke Maadhyam Se Gaanvon Ki Or Shant Pravaah Ke Roop Me Chhoda Jaata Tha, Jaisa Ki Vaastav Me Hona Chaahiye Tha.

Vibhinn Jilon Me Baadh Ke Paani Ka Prabandhan Vibhinn Prakaar Se Kiya Jaata Tha. Yah Kayi Kaarakon Par Nirbhar Karata Tha, Jaise Ki Nikatavarti Bhoomiyon Ki Apekshit Unchaayi/Uthaan, Tatha Us Dauraan Boyi Jaane Vaali Fasal Ityaadi.

Praacheen Misravaasi Vibhinn Prakaar Ke Krisi Utpaadon Ke Liye Mitti Ke Vibhinn Prakaaron Ke Baare Me Jaanate The. Yahaan Tak Ki Unhonne Registaan Ke Kinaare Ka Bhi Laabh Uthaaya, Jahaan Ki Mitti Aur Ret Ke Mishrana Vaali Mrida Bel Wa Kuchh Anya Paudhon Ke Liye Kaafi Upayukt Thi.

Ethiopiaayi Pahaadiyon Se Ae Gaad Se Posit Nitrogen Mishrit Bhoomi Ke Alaava Misravaasi Mrida Posana Ke Atirikt Upaaya Bhi Ajamaate The, Jaise Ki Vibhinn Prayojanon Ke Anusaar Vibhinn Pashuon Aur Pakshiyon Se Praapt Praakritik Urvarak-Khaad Ityaadi. Isake Alaava, Praacheen Misravaasi ‘‘Raasaayanik’’ Urvarakon Ka Bhi Istemaal Karate The, Jo Satahon Par Phailate The. Inaka Upayog Vishes Phasalon Ke Liye Kiya Jaata Tha, Vishes Roop Se Varsh Me Der Se Hone Vaale Phasalon Ke Liye.

Praacheen Misriyon Ne Na Keval Nichale Ilaaqon Ko Paani Upalabdh Karaaya Tha, Balki Ve Un Bhoomiyon Ki Bhi Sinchaayi Karane Me Saksham The, Jo Nadi Se Bahut Sthit Door The Aur Baadh Ka Seedhe-Seedhe Laabh Nahi Le Paate The. Unhonne Door-Daraaz Ke Registaan Tak Pahunchane Ke Liye, Naharon Wa Jal Uthaane Vaale Upakaranaon Ka Upayog Kiya. Praacheen Misr Me Paani Ko Unche Naharon Tak Upar Uthaane Ke Liye Nimn Ka Upayog Kiya Jaata Tha:

1. Shadoof (Dhenkuli)—Yah Neel Ya Anya Sthaanon Se Kam Maatra Me Paani Uthaane Ka Saamaanyaa Tareeka Tha. Isame Mool Roop Se Ek Khnbha Aur Ek Baalti Hote Hain.

2. Philo Dvaara Ullekhit Pair Ki Masheen (Pump), Jisaka Varnaan Vidhi-Vivaran (Deuteronomy) (Xi, 40) Me Bhi Hai,

Vah Misr Desh Ke Samaan Nahi Hai, Jahaan Tum Beej Bote The Aur Hare Saag Ke Khet Ki Reeti Ke Anusaar Apne Paanv Ki Naliyaan Banaakar Seenchate The; 

3. Jalaprerit Pench—Paani Ke Misri Pump Duniya Bhar Me Prasiddh The, Jinaka Istemaal Iberia Ke Khanan Kaaryon Me Kiya Gaya Tha, Jisaki Pushti Strabo [Geography, (3. 2. 9)] Ke Nimn Kathan Se Hoti Hai:

Atah Poseidonius  Ka Arth Hai Ki Turdetanian (Dakshini Spain) Khanik Bhi Samaan Hain, Kyonki Ve Apne Khaan Me Jaane Vaale Maarg Ko Ada Aur Gahara Kaatate Hain, Aur Is Tarah Khaan Ke Maarg Me Milane Vaale Laharen Unhen Misri Pench Ke Saath Pare Hata Deti Hain.

‘‘Misri Pench’’ Ko Usi Siddhaant Ke Anusaar Design Aur Nirmit Kiya Jaata Tha Jis Par Hamaare Adhunik Pump Banate Hain, Jisame Ek Shaft Ke Chaaron Or Kundaali Roop Me Sarpil Nali Hoti Hai, Ya Cylinder Me Bade Pench Hote Hain, Jinhen Haath Ya Yaantraik Tareeke Se Ghumaaya Jaata Hai. Haath Se Chalaaye Jaane Vaale Upakarana Ko Misr Me Ab Amataur Par Tambaur Ke Naam Se Jaana Jaata Hai.

4. Panachakki (Rahat), Me Baaltiyaan Lagi Hoteen, Jo Nadiyon Se Jal Le Kar Use Sinchaayi Vaali Naharon Me Daalati Theen. Ye Unchi Jagahon Ke Liye Paani Pradaan Karane Me Saksham Theen, Isaliye Inhen Kahira Ke Dakshin Ke Fayoum Nakhalistaan Jaisi Jagahon Par Dekha Ja Sakata Hai.

Praacheen Misr Me Jalakal Wa Bhoomi Sudhaar Pariyojanaayen Bahut Badi Theen—Yahaan Tak Ki Hamaare Vartamaan Pariyojanaaon Ke Muqaable Bhi Jiname Bhaaree-Bharakam Upakaranaon Ka Istemaal Kiya Jaata Hai. Yahaan Kuchh Udaaharan Diye Gaye Hain:

1. Ek Vishaal Jalamaarg Pathaantarana Pariyojana 4,000 Saal Pahle Poori Huyi Thi. Is Pariyojana Ki Shurooaat Vartamaan Asyut Se Huyi Thi, Jahaan Se Neel Nadi Ka Kaafi Paani Lagabhag 65 Mile Door Kahira Ke Dakshin Pashchim Me 100 Kimi Ki Doori Par Sthit Vartamaan Fayoum Ke Kshetra Me Jaata Tha. Fayoum Nakhalistaan Samudra Tal Se Neeche Sthit Hai, Aur Yahaan Qaarun Jheel Sthit Hai. Jheel Ko Mool Roop Se Neel Nadi Ke Pravaah Ke Jalagrahana Kunda Ke Roop Me Istemaal Kiya Jaata Tha, Aur Yah Kabhi Poore Kshetra Ko Paatata Tha. Is Paani Ke Saath Neel Nadi Ki Upajaau Gaad Ati Thi Aur Jheel Ke Tal Me Baith Jaati Thi. Is Vishaal Praacheen Pariyojana Se Fayoum Ke Asapaas Ke Registaan Me Barbaad Ho Jaane Vaale Laakhon Gallon Paani Ka Pathaantarana Ho Gaya. Isase Jheel Me Paani Ka Pravaah Kam Ho Gaya. Falaswaroop, Upajaau Mitti Se Bharapoor Mool Jheel Ke Lagabhag 80% Kshetra Par Kheti Ki Jaane Lagi. Neel Nadi Ki Is Shaakha Ke Taton Tak Paani Ko Uthaane Ke Liye Dher Saare Rahaton Ka Istemaal Kiya Gaya. Isake Atirikt, Asyut Ke Uttar Neel Nadi Ghaati Me Paani Ki Maatra Me Vriddhi Ane Se Krisi Yogya Bhoomi Me Vriddhi Huyi.

2. Raja Senwasret Triteeya (1878-1844 B.C.) Ke Samaya Me (Aadhunik Divas) Semna Me Vrihad Saarvazanik Pariyojanaaon Ke Puraataatvik Pramaana Maujood Hain. Semna Ka, Teesare Prapaat Ke Upar Ka Kshetra Upajaau Tha Aur Badi Abaadi Ka Guzaara Karata Tha. Madhya Saamraajya Ke Dauraan, Ek Kritrim Baandh Ne Pravaah Ko Avaruddh Kar Diya. Semena Poorv Me Is Baandh Ke Ek Hisse Ko Aaj Bhi Dekha Ja Sakata Hai. Baandh Ke Nirmaana Ne Neel Ke Star Ko Dakshin Me Saikadon Mile Ki Doori Tak Utha Diya, Jisase Vyaparik Abhiyaanon Ke Liye Africa Ke Andarooni Ilaaqon Me Jaaya Ja Saka. Semna Poorv Aur Semna Pashchim Ke Pravaah Kile Ke Neeche, Chattaanon Par Kareeb 25 Shilaalekh Hain. Ye Madhya Saamraajya Ke Dauraan Darj Kiye Gaye Neel Nadi Ke Baadh Ke Star Ka Pratinidhitva Karate Hain, Aur Ye Sabhi Isaka Star Aaj Ke Adhikatam Paani Ke Star Se 25 Feet (8 Meter) Adhik Darshaate Hain.

 

[isaka ek ansh:Praacheen Misri Sanskriti Ka Rahasyodghaatan -Vistaarit Dviteeya Sanskaran dvaara likhit Moustafa Gadalla]

par pustak saamagree dekhen https://egypt-tehuti.org/product/praacheen-misri-sanskriti-ka-rahasyodghaatan/

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